Posted in Diversity

Where do Nons get their (mistaken) idea Harapan was most ’multiracial’ govt ever?

Rational people form their opinions based on facts. Irrational people hold misinformed opinions from swallowing too much propaganda.

The belief by many Harapan supporters that they successfully formed the most multiracial coalition which Malaysia has ever seen is just plain wrong.

”After the 2018 general election (GE14), Mahathir had everything going for him — a stable majority, the most multiracial coalition the country has known, and with various agendas for reforms,” FMT yesterday reported Dennis Ignatius as saying.

Ignatius is a Christian evangelist Malaysian former diplomat who is launching his new ‘End of Hope‘ political book — cover pictured above.

All three GE14 details claimed by Ignatius, which were quoted in the FMT news report, are inaccurate.

Source: The Star

Firstly, according to Ignatius, PM Mahathir 2.0 enjoyed “a stable majority” in the aftermath of the 2018 election.

Not true. Harapan ended polling night with 113 seats – see The Star‘s (table above) live coverage link here – which was only one seat above the simple majority threshold of 112 required in our 222-seat Dewan Rakyat.

Mahathir only managed to increase Harapan’s unstable majority by absorbing a lot of Umno frogs.

Clearly the Harapan government was never really “stable” and ultimately, had a shelf life lasting a mere 22 months.

Secondly, according to Ignatius (pix above), Harapan – under the chairmanship of Mahathir 2.0 – had “the most multiracial coalition the country has known”.

Again, what Ignatius asserts is simply untrue. Harapan was actually less multiracial than BN, plus Harapan lacked – and still lacks – Sarawak native representation.

Harapan in 2018 after the election had 66 [ correction 67] non-Malay MPs.

BN in 2004 after the 11th general election had 84 non-Malay MPs. (Full headcount provided below.)

Thirdly, according to Ignatius, Harapan had “various agendas for reforms”.

Mahathir is blamed for his cavalier dismissal of the coalition’s Buku Jingga, saying “the manifesto is not a Bible” but nonetheless the Harapan core parties were themselves never serious about carrying out any substantive reform.

BELOW: Maria Chin Abdullah in her Bersih T-shirt pictured standing behind Hannah Yeoh before she was elected MP on the PKR ticket

Real data from GE11 vs GE14

Harapan’s early stable of 66  [correction 67]  non-Malay MPs is listed below – see bottom of page – and include two MPs elected as independents (who later joined PKR), the non-Malay PKR reps who have since defected to Bersatu as well as Chinese Muslim Maria Chin Abdullah.

Update: Tambat @ Jugah ak Muyang contested his Lubok Antu, Sarawak seat as an independent. He then hopped over to PKR. In 2020, he jumped to PN.

Meanwhile, the BN’s non-Malay MPs elected in 2004 include the non-Muslim bumiputera of Sabah and Sarawak.

There were 84 non-Malay, non-Muslim BN reps in the 2004 Dewan Rakyat which had 219 seats.

BELOW: Chinese dissatisfaction and anger against the establishment trending in the mid-2010s

BN non-Malay non-Muslim MPs in 2004

  • Umno — 1
  • MCA — 31
  • Gerakan — 10
  • MIC — 9
  • SUPP — 6
  • PRS — 6
  • PBB — 5
  • SPDP — 4
  • PBS — 4
  • Upko — 4
  • SPP — 2
  • PBRS — 1
  • PPP — 1

Total: 84

The one non-Muslim MP from Umno was Ronald Kiandee, a Sabahan.

MCA list of 31 Chinese MPs, here.


  1. Lim Keng Yaik
  2. Chia Kwang Chye
  3. Ng Lip Yong
  4. Lee Kah Choon
  5. Kerk Choo Ting
  6. Tan Kee Kwong
  7. Huan Cheng Guan
  8. Tan Lian Hoe
  9. Lau Yeng Peng
  10. Mah Siew Keong


  1. Devamany S. Krishnasamy
  2. Karnail Singh Nijhar
  3. P. Komala Devi
  4. Palanivel Govindasamy
  5. S. Sothinathan
  6. S. Veerasingam
  7. S. Vigneswaran M. Sanasee
  8. Samy Vellu
  9. Subramaniam Sathasivam

Sarawak United Peoples’ Party (SUPP) 

  1. Law Hieng Ding
  2. Peter Chin Fah Kui
  3. Richard Riot Jaem
  4. Robert Lau Hoi Chew
  5. Yong Khoon Seng
  6. Tiong Thai King

Parti Rakyat Sarawak (PRS)

  1. Aaron Ago Dagang
  2. Billy Abit Joo
  3. Jawah Gerang
  4. Jimmy Donald Lim
  5. Joseph Entulu Belaun
  6. Joseph Salang Gandum

Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)

  1. Alexander Nanta Linggi
  2. Douglas Uggah Embas
  3. Henry Sum Agong
  4. James Dawos Mamit
  5. Leo Michael Toyad

Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)

  1. Jacob Dungau Sagan
  2. Jelaing Mersat
  3. Tiki Lafe
  4. Tiong King Sing


  1. Bernard Giluk Dompok
  2. Donald Peter Mojuntin
  3. Marcus Mojigoh
  4. Wilfred Madius Tangau

Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)

  1. Edmund Chong Ket Wah
  2. Joseph Pairin Kitingan
  3. Maximus Johnity Ongkili
  4. Yee Moh Chai

Sabah Progressive Party (SPP)

  1. Eric Majimbun
  2. Shim Paw Fatt

Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS)

  1. Bernard S. Maraat


  1. M. Kayveas

Harapan non-Malay / non-Muslim MPs in 2018

DAP — 41


  1. Chan Ming Kai
  2. Sim Tze Tzin
  3. Lee Boon Chye
  4. Chang Lih Kang
  5. William Leong
  6. Tan Yee Kew
  7. Steven Choong Shiau Yoon (defected, aligned with PN)
  8. Michael Teo
  9. Christina Liew
  10. Wong Chen
  11. June Leow
  12. Maria Chin Abdullah
  13. Sivarasa Rasiah
  14. Kesavan Subramaniam
  15. Karupaiya Mutusami
  16. Edmund Santhara Kumar (now Bersatu)
  17. Xavier Jeyakumar (defected, aligned with PN)
  18. Willie anak Mongin
  19. Ali anak Biju
  20. Baru Bian
  21. Jonathan Yasin

Independents turned PKR

  1. Prabakaran Parameswaran
  2. Larry Sng (defected, aligned with PN)


  1. Liew Vui Keong (deceased)
  2. Darell Leiking

* Jugah Muyang — Independent to PKR to PN

Total: 66 + 1



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2 thoughts on “Where do Nons get their (mistaken) idea Harapan was most ’multiracial’ govt ever?

  1. Did the DAP sacrifice their non-Malay quota to fulfil their LKY aspirations as alleged arising from an alleged running dog trading exercise behind the 95% Chinese backs ? Should the 95% Chinese really vote again for the chameleonic DAP ? Or should the 95% Chinese teach these alleged un-Chinese DAP who look like Chinese on the outside but inside 100% Western inside/anti all Chinese beliefs, a lesson they never forget and force them to fold their paper rocket in the National Interest and for Malaysian Unity ?

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